segmentation

plot In a narrative film, all the events that are directly presented
to us, including their causal relations, chronological order, duration,
frequency, and spatial locations; opposed to story, which is
the viewer’s imaginary construction of all the events in the narrative.
See also duration, ellipsis, flashback, flashforward, frequency,
order, viewing time.
point-of-view shot (POV shot) A shot taken with the camera
placed approximately where the character’s eyes would be, showing
what the character would see; usually cut in before or after a
shot of the character looking.
postproduction The phase of film production that assembles the
images and sounds into the finished film.
postsynchronization The process of adding sound to images
after they have been shot and assembled. This can include dubbing
of voices, as well as inserting diegetic music or sound effects. It is
the opposite of direct sound.
preproduction The phase of filmmaking that prepares for production
on the basis of a screenplay, design, and financing.
previsualization A computer-generated early version of a film
or sequence, with simplified images. Filmmakers use it to plan
such aspects as framing, lens length, settings, and staging. Often
referred to as a previz or previs, this tool is most common on
large-budget, special-effects-heavy projects.
process shot Any shot involving rephotography to combine two or
more images into one or to create a special effect; also called composite
shot. See also matte work, rear projection, special effects.
production One of the three branches of the film industry; the
process of creating the film. See also distribution, exhibition.
racking focus Shifting the area of sharp focus from one plane to
another during a shot; the effect on the screen is called rack-focus.
ramping Changing the speed of photographed motion within a
single shot, as when the action in a fight scene suddenly goes from
regular speed to slow motion and back. This effect can be achieved
during shooting or postproduction.
rate In shooting, the number of frames exposed per second; in
projection, the number of frames thrown on the screen per second.
If the two are the same, the speed of the action will appear
normal, whereas a disparity will create slow or fast motion. The
standard rate in sound cinema is 24 frames per second for both
shooting and projection.
rear projection A technique for combining a foreground action
with a background action filmed earlier. The foreground is filmed
in a studio, against a screen; the background imagery is projected
from behind the screen. The opposite of front projection.
reestablishing shot A return to a view of an entire space after a
series of closer shots following the establishing shot.
reframing Short panning or tilting movements to adjust for the
figures’ movements, keeping them onscreen or centered.
rhetorical form A type of filmic organization in which the parts
create and support an argument.
rhythm The perceived rate and regularity of sounds, series of
shots, and movements within the shots. Rhythmic factors include
beat (or pulse), accent (or stress), and tempo (or pace).
rotoscope A machine that projects live-action motion picture
frames one by one onto a drawing pad so that an animator can
trace the figures in each frame. The aim is to achieve more realistic
movement in an animated film.
scene A segment in a narrative film that takes place in one time
and space or that uses crosscutting to show two or more simultaneous
actions.
screen direction The right-left relationships in a scene, set up in
an establishing shot and determined by the position of characters
and objects in the frame, by the directions of movement, and by
the characters’ eyelines. Continuity editing will attempt to keep
screen direction consistent between shots. See also axis of action,
eyeline match, 180° system.
segmentation The process of dividing a film into parts for analysis.
sensor A chip designed to capture visual information in digital
form. It is located behind the lens in a digital motion-picture camera.
sequence Term commonly used for a moderately large segment
of film, involving one complete stretch of action; in a narrative
film, often equivalent to a scene.
shallow focus A restricted depth of field, which keeps only one
plane in sharp focus; the opposite of deep focus.
shallow space Staging the action in relatively few planes of
depth; the opposite of deep space.
shot (1) In shooting, one uninterrupted run of the camera to
expose a series of frames; also called a take. (2) In the finished
film, one uninterrupted image, whether or not there is mobile
framing.