PHEV charging model

PEVs (plug-in electric vehicles) which can be recharged from an
external electricity network are generally referred to both PHEVs
(plug-in hybrid electric vehicles) that share electricity and fossil
energy as well as EVs (electric vehicles) which only consume
electricity. They recently have gained an increased interest due to
increasing petroleum price and their opportunity to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions.
In PHEVs, various items can influence over charging performance
of these devices namely type of charger, charging method,
SOC (state of charge) of the battery, charging commencement and
time span, battery capacity and the quantity of batteries being
charged. When considering the charging demand of PHEVs in a MG,
the sum of vehicles load will be unsure due to the uncertain
behaviour of the mentioned charging factors. In order to include
the effects of PHEV charging on the MG, three charging strategies of
uncontrolled, controlled and smart schemes are defined and
considered in this study.