maintaining relationships

Importance of Learning About Self and Others
Many contemporary leadership frameworks emphasize the importance of
self and others. Table 5.1 provides an overview of the components of select
NEW DIRECTIONS FOR STUDENT LEADERSHIP • DOI: 10.1002/yd
62 INNOVATIVE LEARNING FOR LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
Table 5.1 Contemporary Leadership Models With a Focus on Self
and Others
Leadership Model Focus on Self Focus on Others
Emotionally Intelligent
Leadership (Shankman
et al., 2015)
Consciousness of self;
emotional
self-perception;
emotional self-control;
authenticity; healthy
self-esteem; flexibility;
optimism;
achievement
Consciousness of others;
displaying empathy;
inspiring others;
coaching others;
capitalizing on
difference; developing
relationships; building
teams; demonstrating
citizenship; managing
conflict; facilitating
change
Social Change Model of
Leadership (Higher
Education Research
Institute [HERI], 1996)
Consciousness of self;
congruence;
commitment
Collaboration; common
purpose; controversy
with civility
Adaptive Leadership
(Heifetz, 1994)
Awareness of and ability
to shift one’s values,
ways of viewing the
world, and habitual
ways of behaving
Ability to understand
others’ motivations,
values, and capacities;
ability to “read a group”
and mobilize others
Five Exemplary Practices
of Leadership (Kouzes
& Posner, 2012)
Modeling the way Inspiring a shared vision;
enabling others to act;
encouraging the heart
Relational Leadership
Model (Komives, Lucas,
& McMahon, 2013)
Awareness of one’s
values;
trustworthiness;
authenticity;
self-esteem; open to
difference; committed;
optimistic
Empowering others;
listening; working as a
team; valuing others’
contributions; developing
common purpose
Servant Leadership
(Greenleaf, 1977)
Self-awareness; foresight;
healing oneself;
visionary
Listening; empathy;
persuasion; commitment
to the growth of others;
building community;
healing others
leadership models often used with college students that align with a focus
on self and others.
In addition to leadership models often used with college student populations, outcomes of personal and social competence are emphasized in
other guiding documents for leadership education. Three such documents,
highlighted in Table 5.2, are the Council for the Advancement of Standards
NEW DIRECTIONS FOR STUDENT LEADERSHIP • DOI: 10.1002/yd
VALUING HUMAN SIGNIFICANCE 63
Table 5.2 Guiding Documents With Outcomes Related to Personal and
Social Competence
Guiding Document
Personal Competence
Outcomes
Social Competence
Outcomes
CAS Standards for Student
Leadership Programs
(CAS, 2012)
Realistic self-appraisal,
self-understanding, &
self-respect; identity
development; commitment
to ethics & integrity;
spiritual awareness
Meaningful
relationships;
interdependence;
collaboration;
effective
leadership
ILA’s Guiding Questions:
Guidelines for Leadership
Education Programs
(ILA, 2009)
Personal development;
self-awareness; personal
growth/change; renewal;
spirituality; self in relation
to others
Interpersonal skills;
communication;
group dynamics
AAC&U’s Liberal Education
and America’s Promise:
Essential Learning
Outcomes (AAC&U, 2014)
Intercultural knowledge;
ethical reasoning and
action; skills for lifelong
learning
Teamwork;
communication;
intercultural
competence