Inhabited Localities, and Topography

In spite of the many attributions of geographic belonging
to Egypt, the Egyptian people have a strong sense
of identity with their country and demonstrate pride
in coming from such an old civilization. Egyptian history
is inextricably connected to the Nile River and
dates back to about 4000 B.C., when the kingdoms of
upper and lower Egypt were united by King Menes,
who presented himself as a god. The ancient Egyptians
were the first to believe in life after death, mummify
2780_BC_Ch28_001-022 03/07/12 9:54 AM Page 2
economic recovery, changed their status to immigrant.
For most, this ensured a promising future for their
children, even though they would have been assured
decent positions in Egypt because of their American
The second wave of immigration resulted from the
heightened mass dissatisfaction, hopelessness, and
anger toward the government of the educated and
professional community after the 1967 war. A lenient
government policy made it easy and safe for anyone
who wanted to leave the country, resulting in the
largest exodus from Egypt in modern history. Included
in this wave were many Coptic and other
Egyptian Christians (Shaw, 2000).
The third wave, in the 1980s and beyond, had many
more risk takers. They came to seek better lives and
forsake the security of government jobs for unknown
adventures. They sought new opportunities such as
cab driving and working at food outlets in large cities
(Meleis, 2002). Some of these immigrants are temporary,
others are permanent, and still others are in
circular migration (Nassar, 2008). It is important
to note here that the terrorist attacks in New York,
Pennsylvania, and Washington, DC, and the tragic
consequences of September 11, 2001, have rendered
many newly immigrated Egyptian Americans vulnerable
to profiling and stereotyping in their newly
adopted country, the United States. Therefore, a newly
acquired sense of stigma tends to influence their patterns
of responses in ways that were not manifested
previously. Long-term effects of this situation on their
patterns of behaviors have yet to be studied and understood.
It remains to be seen whether the youth
Tahrir Square Revolution of 2011 and the referendum
in the constitution will instigate circular migration