Increase in annual average temperature

Change in rainfall
Climate change can be demonstrated through the drastic fluctuation in the distribution of rainfall
across the surface with heavy rainfall during the certain period in the year and very low rainfall
during the remaining period of the year. The changes in the climate are mainly due to the issues
of global warming increasing and the harmful gases affecting the environment released in large
quantities in Singapore. It has also been observed that there is an extensive difference in rainfall
recorded across different years. As shown in Figure 1.9, it can be seen how the rainfall is
fluctuating between the two consecutive years. For example, in 2008, the annual frequency of
rainfall was about 14 whereas, in 2009, it was 8. It again increased to 13 in the year 2010
(National Climate Change Secretariat, 2012). This is an example of the climate change observed
in Singapore, and there are many factors influencing the occurrence and development of such
climate in Singapore.
Figure 1.9 – Fluctuation in rainfall across different years
(National Climate Change Secretariat, 2012)
There are extensive changes in the water cycles due to the irregular rainfall patterns in
Singapore. There are time intervals when there would be droughts in the country. These largely
affect the vegetation as well as the animal life in these areas. However, the period of drought is
followed by intensive rainfall for short intervals. Due to it, there are many instances of flooding
of water on the streets of Singapore as shown Figure 1.10 below. It is primary because of the
inability of the drainage system as well as the unexpected change in the climate (National
Climate Change Secretariat, 2012). In additional, the increase of rainfall would affect the slope
stability whereby it adversely affected the vegetation that holds into the soil.
Figure 1.10 – Floods in Singapore as an effect of climate change
Source: (National Climate Change Secretariat, 2012)
1.3.4 Adverse effects on the Biodiversity and greenery
During the industrialisation and urbanisation development stage in Singapore, the reduction of
the greenery has been a major contributor to the development of factors damaging the
biodiversity that is anticipated in the country (National Climate Change Secretariat, 2012).
There is a significant impact on the different vegetation and the biodiversity existing in
Singapore due to the gradual increase of average temperature of about 1.5ºC – 2.5ºC. It is
correlated with the impact on the eco-system such as soil formation, pollution absorption and
nutrient storage and the plants as well as the animals are kept at the suffering end of the
consequences developed from global warming. The biodiversity in Singapore is kept at risk
when the natural habitat of the animals is destroyed.