Adoption and use of Information Communication Technology

Performance Management: Conceptual and Definitional Issues
1. Introduction
There are multiple definitions of performance management. For purposes of this guide, the
operational definition of performance management system will be a holistic (all-embracing) and
systematic process for getting better results from the organization, teams and individuals by
managing performance within an agreed framework of planned goals, objectives and standards.
This definition has three related perspectives, the first emphasizes the organizational level
interventions for results to be achieved, the second perspective places emphasis on the role of the
individual while the third suggests the need to take an integrated approach. Each of the three
perspectives is briefly elaborated below and illustrated in Appendix 1.
Performance management using the institutional/organizational focus
This perspective focuses on the determination of the organization’s strategy and the
implementation of that strategy through the organization’s structure, technology, business system
and procedures. In this regard, employees are not the primary focus, although they will be
affected by the changes in technology, structure and operating systems.
It comprises three main processes which are; planning, improving and reviewing. Under this
perspective, performance planning is concerned with activities such as formulating the
organization’s vision and strategy and defining what is meant by performance. Performance
improvement includes activities such as business process re-engineering, continuous process
improvement, benchmarking and total quality management. Performance review embraces
performance measurement and evaluation.